DCI vs Just Making Classes

January 02, 2013 📬 Get My Weekly Newsletter

There’s been lots of talk about DCI in the Ruby community lately. As I mentioned, I am only partway through Jim Gay’s unfinished book on the subject, but I ran across a blog post that had a more substantial example in it.

Titled Why DCI Contexts?, someone named rebo, shows a starting point of “normal” code, then “DCIzes” it, then walks through adding new features to the system. It’s a bit long, but his explanation is great, and it shows a lot more than just calling .extend on an object - he clearly demonstrates how roles and contexts are used to implement specific use cases.

Despite the deftness of his explalnation, I find the result code entirely too complex, thanks to confusing abstractions, a needless DSL and leaky abstractions. It would all have been a lot simpler if he Just Used Classes®

Let’s see why.

In rebo’s post, he has a basic domain of a User, a Product, an Invoice, and Accounts (which groups invoices). The classes he creates for them are reasonable structs - they just hold data and have no real methods. He then shows the implementation of a basic use case - when someone buys something an invoice is created and added to their accounts. Here’s the code.

class PurchasingProcess
  include AliasDCI::Context
  def initialize(user, product, accounts)
    assign_named_roles(:customer            => user,
                       :selected_product    => product,
                       :accounts_department => accounts)

  def call
    in_context do

  role :customer do
    def buy_product
      purchases << selected_product

  role :selected_product do
    def invoice_desc
      "#{name} - #{description} @ #{price} ea."

  role :accounts_department do
    def generate_invoice
      invoice =  Invoice.new(customer.address, selected_product.invoice_desc, total )
      invoices << invoice

My first thought looking at this was “WTF?” This is entirely too complex for the task at hand. It looks like it would be hard to write, hard to test, and hard to read (not to mention hard to execute).


Let’s start with the definition of call, and let’s assume that we understand that in_context runs the code inside our “DCI Container” that enables the DSL. This is a big assumption, but I’ll make it. The first call:


What is customer? Where is it defined? I see no method with that name. I’ll need to understand that the hash given to assign_named_roles renames the object given to the constructor. OK, what about buy_product, the method that’s being called?

It’s not a method on User, so I’ll need to hunt down inside my class to find a definition, making sure to note if it is, or is not, defined inside a role :customer block - presumably I could do role :foobar and define a method buy_product and that would not be what I’m looking for.

Looking at that method, I see that it’s mutating an array called purchases, giving it the value of selected_product. purchases is not a role, nor was it passed to assign_named_roles, so where is it coming from?

Turns out, it’s an attribute of User and that the method definition we are reading is being executed inside the binding of the User instance passed to the constructor. Finally, we see that that selected_product is a role, an instance of Product.

One line down, one to go. Whew!


Again, we confirm that accounts_department is not a method defined locally, but is an instance of Accounts set up in the constructor. The method generate_invoice is a method defined at the bottom of our class presumably added to the Accounts instance by the DSL. As before, invoices is an attribute of Accounts, and our method is executing inside that binding, which we just have to remember to piece together.

And this is for a two line method in a very simplified domain. Exactly how is this supposed to make my job of reading and writing code easier?! And how the heck do we test all this? More DSLs?

rebo states his case for this complexity and insanity by showing some “fat model” code as well as some unscoped “glue code” that implements this use case. This code is, indeed bad, too. It puts logic on the models that really don’t belong there. Can we do better? Yes.

class PurchasingProcess
  def purchase_product(customer,product,accounts)
    customer.purchases << product
    invoice_desc = "#{invoice.name} - #{invoice.description} @ #{invoice.price} ea."
    accounts.invoices << Invoice.new(customer.address,invoice_desc, invoice.total)

Yup. Instead of bringing in a complex framework, confusing monkeypatching, and dynamic methods created in non-obvious bindings, I just made a class that implements the business logic, and write the requisite three lines of code.

I didn’t have to change the core business objects, nor should I have - the format of invoice_desc is, so far, particular to this use case, and needn’t be part of the Invoice class. To understand this, we don’t need to leap too far: the customer is a customer that we know contains purchases. We add the passed Purchase instance, purchases, to that, then construct a description of the invoice before adding a new invoice to the accounts instance we were given.

The method that implements our business logic is all based on parameters or local variables - there is no global or class-level state to worry about, and each object is named for the type of class it is - no need to mentally translate when reading the code. Assuming you understand what the core domain objects are, you can read and comprehend this entire business process on a VT100 terminal (if you had to).

If this business process needs to get more complex, we can use method extraction as a first step to fight complexity, and could just make more classes if it gets worse. If it turns out that another business process needs to share some of this logic by design, we can just apply other methods of re-use to deal with it then.

So, what is so wrong with this that we need some complex container to manage what should be just a few lines of code? I do not know. I’m willing to concede this as a straw man argument, to a certain degree, but I’m still waiting to see how DCI is an improvement over basic structured programming.